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Effect of Nickel on Smelting Cost of Stainless Steel

Effect of Nickel on Smelting Cost of Stainless Steel

2019-08-12 15:14
In the smelting of stainless steel, there are three main sources of nickel metals: nickel pig iron, pure nickel and waste stainless steel. According to the price fluctuation of raw materials in different periods, steel mills adopt different proportioning methods to produce in order to maximize profits. This paper will focus on the comparison of production costs of stainless steel in various raw material mixing ways in the current period.
I. Cost comparison between high nickel iron and nickel plate
Compared with pure nickel, the advantage of high nickel pig iron is that it can provide steelmaking pig iron. At present, the price of pig iron for steelmaking is 2 530 yuan/ton. Taking 12% grade of high nickel pig iron as an example, the current price in Jiangsu is 1 380 yuan/nickel. For high nickel iron, the value of steel-making pig iron given by each nickel point is 181 yuan. That is to say, if the quotation of high nickel pig iron is less than 181 yuan per nickel plate, the high nickel pig iron still has cost advantage. As far as the current situation is concerned, the spot nickel price of the Yangtze River is 126400 yuan/ton, and the price difference between the two is 116 yuan/nickel, which is less than 181 yuan. Therefore, for the raw materials of stainless steel smelting, high nickel iron has more cost advantages than nickel plate.
II. Cost comparison of scrap stainless steel and high nickel pig iron
Compared with high nickel pig iron, scrap stainless steel contains not only nickel but also chromium. The main components of waste stainless steel are as follows: the mass fraction of nickel metal is 8%, that of chromium metal is 17%, that of iron is 73%, and that of other metals is 2%. For nickel metal in scrap steel, the tender price of scrap steel in June in Taiyuan Iron and Steel Co. is 13900 yuan/ton, converted into 8% of scrap steel with the value of 11 120 yuan. The price of single nickel point in scrap steel is 1390 yuan/nickel, which is basically equivalent to the price of 1380 yuan/nickel of 12% high nickel pig iron in Jiangsu Province.
Due to the lack of stainless steel scrap resources in China, the high energy consumption in the smelting of all-scrap steel, and the bad quality of scrap steel, which brings more harmful elements into molten steel, the production mode of all-scrap stainless steel is generally not adopted when the price advantage of scrap steel is insufficient to attract. According to the statistics of 51bxg Industrial Research Center, in the smelting of stainless steel, the proportion of scrap stainless steel raw materials reaches 60%, which is close to the line, and the average utilization ratio of scrap stainless steel for the whole society is about 18%.
3. Low Nickel Pig Iron + Pure Nickel Model
For the low nickel pig iron and pure nickel model, assuming that the low nickel pig iron (1.6%) plus pure nickel model is equipped with the same composition of high nickel pig iron (12%), then 0.8943 tons of low nickel iron and 0.1057 tons of pure nickel are required. At present, the price of low nickel iron in Shandong market is 3400 yuan/ton, and that of spot nickel in Yangtze River is 1264400 yuan/ton. Therefore, if we compare this way, the price of 12% nickel pig iron is 16401.1 yuan, equivalent to 1366.8 yuan/nickel. At present, the price of 12% high-nickel iron is 1380 yuan per nickel, and the comparative advantage is not obvious.
IV. MODE OF MEDIUM NICKEL IRON+PURE NICKEL
For the production mode of medium-nickel-iron plus pure nickel, assuming that the mode of "medium-nickel-iron pig iron (5%) + pure nickel" is equipped with high-nickel pig iron (12%) with the same composition, then 0.926 tons of medium-nickel-iron and 0.074 tons of pure nickel are needed. At present, the tax price of ferronickel in China is 1340 yuan/nickel, and the spot price of nickel in the Yangtze River is 126 400 yuan/ton. Therefore, according to this ratio, the price of 12% nickel pig iron is 15557.8 yuan, equivalent to 1296.5 yuan/nickel. In contrast, the production mode of medium-nickel-iron+pure nickel is superior to that of ferronickel, with a single nickel point of 84 yuan lower.
For the above several kinds of stainless steel production raw material proportioning mode, not only has certain guiding significance for steel mills to control production costs, but also can judge the trend of rising and falling after different periods, the price difference of various raw materials, and the difference of rising and falling speed.